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This is a series of conditions which on their own or together  can lead to a person being drowned.

Each link in the chain can lead on to another link, or directly to a drowning or near drowning.

Lack of knowledge, disregard for or misunderstanding of sea conditions.
Uninformed or unrestricted access to the beach
Lack of supervision or surveillance
Inability to cope once in difficulty

Solution is to educate and inform with an objective to increase knowledge through quality public education and awareness

Solution is to increase survival skills with an objective to promote the acquisition of survival skills

The supervision of beaches is often required to manage the risk of the location, whether due to prevailing water conditions, the proximity to large population bases, or the attendance of the beach/coastal area due to its location or attractiveness.

Solution is to extend lifesaving services with an objective to promote quality lifesaving services

The way the coast is accessed is a significant factor in the management of coastal risk.


While preventing public access/use to the coastal environment is not desired, a number of options exist to minimize the risks associated with the access way itself and the hazards that may be encountered on the coast (via that access way).


Access issues are interrelated to other risk management initiatives/options such as water safety signage, emergency access numbering/reporting, supervision (lifeguard) information and public rescue equipment. An effective access plan for an area may optimize the effectiveness and efficiency of other initiatives


Solution is to provide warnings and deny Access with an objective safe aquatic environment

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